There were more than sixty investigations by national and international bodies many of which concluded that the violence was supported by state officials. “After the riots in Vadagam, activists were trying to counsel the fear-stricken families to return to the village when the boards were put up out of the blue. The report of the commission stated that the tolerant and secular foundations of the city were holding even if a little shakily. Out of the six riots in Gujarat in 2019, two were caused over ‘Love Jihad’. While Modi maintained that he had done everything in his power to contain the rioting, his critics accused him of having remained indifferent at best, and allowing the rioters a free rein at worst. However, the girl was made to return after a compromise was worked out within the communities. Notably, after almost every incident of a communal clash in small towns and villages of Gujarat, boards saying “Welcome to Hindu Rashtra” emerge.  Post-Independence, the after-effects of the Partition of India along communal lines, the resurgence of 'Hindu Muslim Economic competition', the growth of right-wing communalist movements such as the RSS, and political strategies of 'appeasement' towards communal political influences by secular political authorities (see Shah Bano case), reinforced communalist ideologies in the country.  A high-ranking member of the special branch later stated that the police were fully aware of the Shiv Sena's capabilities to commit acts of violence, and that they had incited hate against the minority communities. The … Mumbai witnessed one of the worst riots in the post independent India (see Engineer, The Gujarat Carnage). To date, the recommendations of the Commission have neither been accepted nor acted upon by the Maharashtra Government. The Bombay riots usually refers to the riots in Mumbai, in December 1992 and January 1993, in which an estimated 900 people died.  Historian Barbara Metcalf has described the riots as an anti-Muslim pogrom. According to the case, after the demolition of Babri Mosque in Ayodhya in 1992, riots broke out at Rajeev Nagar area in Surat. Disability Rights Organisations, Activists Write to Amit Shah, Ask that NCRB Maintains ‘Disaggregated Data’ on Violence Against Disabled Women, Forced Consent and No Transparency Can Create a Backlash against Vaccines, ‘If Govt Suspends Farm Laws Till 2024 Then We Have No Problem’, Why Hindutva Supporters Find Trump’s Defeat Hard to Accept, Love Jihad – Legislation of the Post Truth, Locking Down the Poor: The Pandemic and India’s Moral Centre, Badaun Gangrape Not the First Case of Police Lapses in UP; It’s Recurring. The 2006 Vadodara riots also known as the 2006 Dargah riots occurred on 1 May of that year in the city of Vadodara in the state of Gujarat in India. Human Rights Watch was able to document patterns in Ahmedabad that echo those of previous episodes of anti-Muslim violence throughout the state and of anti-minority violence over the years in many parts of the country-most notably the Bombay riots in 1992 and 1993, and the anti-Sikh riots in Delhi in 1984. One police personnel was injured in the violence. The family, who had survived the riots in 2002, had settled in Vadavali as it was peaceful and had never heard of any communal tension. The Commission identified two phases to the riots. “There is another pattern to these incidents of communal violence. Vadavali, a small village in Chanasma tehsil, Patan district, went up in smoke on March 26, 2017 after a communal riot razed it, leaving two dead, 25 injured and several homes gutted and looted. Abdul had been looking for his brother who was rumoured to have been killed in the violence of what are referred to as the ‘Bombay riots’, which left over 900 dead.  Many indicted policemen were promoted by the government and indicted politicians continue to hold high political office even today. In March 2017, 35 Sindhi Muslim families had to flee their village of Vadagam in Dhansura block of Aravalli district in north Gujarat. Conversely, TADA was not used after the violence carried out against Muslims during the Bombay riots.  The Babri Mosque demolition on 6 December 1992, an act of communal violence by Hindu extremist, is considered to be the immediate cause of the riots. The village is a heterogenous one where Brahmins, Patidars, Darbars (Kshatriyas), Dalits and Sindhi Muslims (a nomadic tribe) had been living in peace until a minor girl from the village passed Akbar’s home and claimed he had harassed her. The second by then Chief Minister Narendra Modi on the second day of the violence against Muslims across Gujarat, which followed the burning to death at Godhra railway station of 58 passengers travelling on the Sabarmati Express on February 27, 2002. , The violence was widely reported as having been orchestrated by D-Company and their associates with the help of local Muslims. the insensitive and harsh approach of the police while handling the protesting mobs which initially were not violent. (31 Dec 2002) Ayodhya The Indian town of Ayodhya, in the state of Uttar Pradesh, became the focus of tensions between Hindu nationalists and Muslims. Explore more on Gujarat Riots Convict.  The commission was disbanded by the Shiv Sena led government in January 1996 and on public opposition was later reconstituted on 28 May 1996; though when it was reconstituted its terms of reference were extended to include the Bombay bomb blasts that followed in March 1993.  The case was later dismissed. Justice Srikrishna indicted those he alleged as largely responsible for the second phase of the bloodshed and to some extent the first, the Shiv Sena. The majority of those arrested under the act were Muslim. I was nine, a cripple, when Hindu nationalists came home with swords to select me and my sister for gang rape. For latest updates on nCOVID-19 around the world visit our, ‘Notably, after almost every incident of a communal clash in small towns and villages of Gujarat, boards saying “Welcome to Hindu Rashtra” emerge.’, Mumbai: On the second day of Mahapadav agitation in Maharashtra, after walking down the Kasara ghat on Sunday early morning, thousands of, Sitting in a camp at the Palwal border, Shrikrishna Kushwaha shares an old proverb – “Uttam kheti madhyam baan, neech chakari bheekh nida, That India's COVID-19 vaccination programme. As determined by the government's Srikrishna commission; the riots started as a result of communal tension prevailing in the city after the Babri Mosque demolition on 6 December 1992. The communal violence and rioting triggered off by the burning at Dongri and Radhabhai Chawl, and the following retaliatory violence by Shiv Sena was hijacked by local criminal elements who potential opportunity to make quick gains. The violence is also an instrumental part of the plot of the film, The Bombay Riots set the background for the popular, This page was last edited on 22 January 2021, at 05:13. The riots, which began with members of both communities pelting stones at each other, spread to neighbouring areas of Rana Chakla, Madai and Vasdavad in Khambat. Various writers trace the causes of the riots to a mix of socioeconomic and political factors. Rajdeep Sardesai covered the Bombay riots in 1992-93, reported extensively on the 2002 Gujarat riots and visited the streets of Delhi this week. And while a human rights group challenged the decision in court, this attempt failed to revive the commission. ... 1992, sparked riots across India in which about 1,700 persons were killed.  On 10 July 2008, a Mumbai court sentenced former Shiv Sena MP Madhukar Sarpotdar and two other party activists to a year's rigorous imprisonment in connection with the riots. The protestors were primarily protesting against a group of Muslim students who they accused of ‘luring’ Hindu girls of the college into relationships, calling it ‘Love Jihad’. The Supreme Court on Thursday allowed RK Raghavan, who was heading the apex court appointed Special Investigation Team (SIT) to probe 2002 Gujarat riots cases, to be relieved from the duty of heading the team. According to a study by Buniyaad, a Gujarat-based minority rights organisation, the theatre for communal riots in the state has changed from urban to rural areas. Starting from the demolition of Babri Masjid in 1992 to the Gujarat riots of 2002, to last year’s Delhi riots, speeches made by BJP leaders L.K. … An estimated 575 Muslims and 275 Hindus were killed at the end of the riot. Though there was a lull in communal violence after the post – Babri Masjid riots, Gujarat remained hypersensitive throughout. Justice Srikrishna, then a relatively junior Judge of the Bombay High Court, accepted the task of investigating the causes of the riots, something that many of his colleagues had turned down. It was a black day in the history of India. The relationship between a Muslim boy and a tribal girl from Kotda village in Sabarkantha caused a riot which resulted in 12 Muslim families having to flee. Boards of "Welcome to Hindu Rashtra" in various places in Gujarat all signed by Bajrang Dal However, post-2002, places like Chattral in Gandhinagar district, Vadavali in Patan, Khambhat in Anand, Idar in Sabarkantha and Halvad in Morbi have been witnessing communal violence. In Mehsana, a Muslim boy and Hindu girl students of a local college were confronted by Dhaval Barot, a local VHP member, who accused the boy of ‘Love Jihad’. 1984, 1992, 2002: Why riot survivors 'move on' The victims in Gujarat, of the 1992 violence in Mumbai and the anti-Sikh killings of 1984 inevitably get on with their lives -- looking for jobs not justice; a path to the future, not to redress the past. The first was mainly a Muslim instigation as a result of the Babri Masjid demolition in the week immediately succeeding 7 December 1992 led by political leaders representing Hindutva in the city of Ayodhya. Pune Metro: Pillars in River Heighten Flood Risk, Will They Be Reconsidered? , According to the commission report, the causes of these riots were listed as, Only 3 convictions happened in the 1992-93 Bombay riots cases. A report from the National Human Rights Commission of India (NHRC) stated that res ipsa loquitur applied as the state had comprehensively failed to protect uphold the rights of the people as set out in the Constitution of India. Get the latest reports & analysis with people's perspective on Protests, movements & deep analytical videos, discussions of the current affairs in your Telegram app. Bal Thackeray, the then-leader of the Shiv Sena, was arrested in July 2000 for his complicity in the riots and for 'inflammatory writings' that may have helped propagate the riots. But this is no reason to celebrate. The trigger was the demolition of the Babri Masjid at Ayodhya in Uttar Pradesh by thousands of maniacal Hindu right wingers. . Since under the Commissions of Inquiry Act, an Inquiry is not a court of law (even if it conducts proceedings like a court of law) and the report of an inquiry is not binding on Governments, Srikrishna's recommendations cannot be directly enforced. 2002 Gujarat riots and 1984 Sikh riots are different: Kanhaiya Kumar. Vadavali is not the only village in Gujarat which has witnessed communal riots or clashes in the last few years. However, post-2002, places like Chattral in Gandhinagar district, Vadavali in Patan, Khambhat in Anand, Idar in Sabarkantha and Halvad in Morbi have been witnessing communal violence. Explore more on Gujarat Riots. Babri Masjid to Gujarat riots, Vajpayee rose above ideology to speak his mind. The second phase was a Hindu backlash occurring as a result of the killings of Hindu Mathadi Kamgar (workers) by Muslim fanatics in Dongri (an area of South Bombay), stabbing of Hindus in Muslim majority areas and burning of six Hindus, including a disabled girl in Radhabai Chawl. For five years until 1998, he examined victims, witnesses and alleged perpetrators. Several houses, vehicles and shops were damaged and set on fire. Around 25 people, including the girl’s family, came looking for Akbar soon after and verbally abused Allubhai, his father, and thrashed Akbar. For instance, an outfit named Shri Ram Sena, formed about three or four years old and based in Khambhat, is constantly engaged in spreading hate speech and a distorted version of history on social media. It faulted the Gujarat government for failure of intelligence, failure to take appropriate action, and failure to identify local factors and players. "Whether it is 1984 Delhi riots, 1992 Mumbai riots, 1985 Gujarat riots or atrocities committed in Kashmir or Godhra-related riots. Five houses belonging to Muslims, a temple, a Masjid, a Dargah and six shops – five owned by Muslims and one by a Hindu – were burned down. While Justice Liberhan may have submitted his report 17 years late, an inquiry commission for the 1992 riots that broke out in Surat in the wake of the Babri Masjid demolition was terminated in 1997 because it sought several extensions. For a while, its contents were a closely guarded secret and no copies were available. An agreement was signed where the boy’s family agreed he would not return to the village and they would give the girl’s family Rs 35,000 as compensation; a settlement amount.  A high-ranking member of the special branch later stated that the police were fully aware of the Shiv Sena's capabilities to commit acts of violence, and that they had incited hate against the minority communities. This phase occurred in January 1993, with most incidents reported between 6 and 20 January. The 1969 Gujarat riots refers to the communal violence between Hindus and Muslims during September–October 1969, in Gujarat, India.The violence was Gujarat's first major riot that involved massacre, arson and looting on a large scale. JNUSU president Kanhaiya Kumar on Monday compared the alleged onslaught on varsities with Gujarat riots alleging both of them were carried out "with support" from state machinery even as he stressed that there is a fundamental difference between "emergency" and "fascism". By the time the right wing Hindu organization Shiv Sena realised that enough had been done by way of "retaliation", the violence and rioting was beyond the control of its leaders who had to issue an appeal to put an end to it. The 1992 Los Angeles riots, sometimes called the 1992 Los Angeles uprising, were a series of riots and civil disturbances that occurred in Los Angeles County in April and May 1992. Later, another group arrived at his residence, demanding that Akbar be handed over. Earlier, major cities like Ahmedabad, Surat and Vadodara had witnessed major communal riots in 1946, 1969,1981-82, 1985, 1990, 1992, 2002 and 2006. The mobs used acid bulbs, petrol bombs, stones and torched six homes. Detractors came initially from left quarters who were wary of a judge who was a devout and practising Hindu. The U.S.’s Idea of Diplomacy With Ecuador Is a Multibillion-Dollar Loan Trap. I myself am a child of the Mumbai riots unleashed by Modi’s party, the BJP, in 1992. The Gujarat government has cleared the decks to chargesheet a 1992 batch IPS officer for breach of official secrecy, within a week of suspending another IPS officer Sanjiv Bhatt for exposing the Narendra Modi establishment's alleged collusion with the 2002 Godhra riots accused.. Sharma had caused enormous embarrassment for the Modi government after he produced mobile phone call … 2002 Gujarat riots probe: SC relieves SIT chief RK Raghavan. There has been a surge of local Hindu supremacist outfits in small towns across the state. “In 2019, there were six incidents of communal violence in Gujarat out which five incidents took place in small towns, blocks and villages like Khambat in Anand, Kota Gadi in Sabarkantha, Nandoliya in Kadi Taluka, Dhunadra in Kheda district,” Hozefa Ujjaini, a Gujarat-based minority rights activist who was part of the fact-finding team, told NewsClick. Seven FIRs were registered following the riots in which Patel and Brahmbhatt were named alongside several leaders of the Hindu Jagran Manch and a few local councillors. Find Gujarat Riots Latest News, Videos & Pictures on Gujarat Riots and see latest updates, news, information from NDTV.COM. Radhika Singh The mainstream media abets Islamists globally, hiding stories about Islamic brutalities while highlighting, underscoring, and exaggerating instances that have a Muslim victim, even if he or she is a thief or a suicide bomber. It took local police and the RAF about two hours to quell the mob. Vehicle burns after riots … They played a role in communalising a social media post on the Pulwama attack that resulted in riots in 2019,” said Ujjaini. In another incident, an anti-ragging protest at Maharaja Sayajirao University (MSU) in Baroda took a communal turn. They are now happening at places which were unaffected by the riots of 2002,” Ujjaini added. MHA 2020 Review: Exemplar of Fabrication and Authoritarian Pride? Men, women and youngsters from Gujarat, constituting possibly the largest contingent from anywhere in the country, partici- pated in the demolition of the Babri Masjid on December 6, 1992. “The deep roots of extreme right-wing outfits can be traced in this riot in Khambhat. The riots were mainly due to escalations of hostilities after large scale protests by Muslims in reaction to the 1992 Babri Masjid Demolition by Hindu Karsevaks in Ayodhya. A few days after that rally, riots broke out in Khambhat, leaving around thirteen people injured while more than 30 shops, ten houses and several vehicles were torched to ashes. In the age of TV and social media, where visual imagery has primacy over the narrative, identities are impossible to cloak anymore. Post Gujarat Riots Case - The Gujarat Files - Gujarat Riots Case - Bashira bibi Sheikh, 50 lost her husband in the Sardarpura riots.  The riots were mainly due to escalations of hostilities after large scale protests by Muslims in reaction to the 1992 Babri Masjid Demolition by Hindu Karsevaks in Ayodhya. Later, Barot told local media and wrote on social media that he was a victim who was protecting a Hindu woman from a ‘love jihadist’. Modi went on to say that there could not be any difference between the riots of 1984 and those of 2002. The riots happened during the chief ministership of the Indian National Congress leader Hitendra Desai. The communal violence in December 1992 and January 1993, set off by the destruction of the Ayodhya mosque, was a Shiv Sena-organized pogrom against Muslims in Mumbai. As per Buniyaad, in February 2012, a dispute over the construction of shops on land under the Waqf Board in Khambhat ended up in large-scale riots. Soon after the incident, multiple boards came up between Dhansura and Vadagam – a stretch of about eight kilometres – that read: “Hindu Rashtra ke Vadagam, Dhansura, Harsol aur Talod me apka swagat hai” (Welcome to Hindu Rashtra’s Vadagam, Harsol and Talod.). Though the official death toll in the Surat riots … Maharashtra Mahapadav: Farmers’ March Reaches Azad Maidan in Mumbai, Agitation Continues, Vicious Cycle of Perpetual Indebtedness Among Madhya Pradesh Farmers, When an Anti-Science Dispensation Faced Vaccine Hesitancy, Militant Activities Increasing in J&K Border Districts with Higher Recovery of Arms, Say Security Officials. In Gujarat, the Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act (TADA) was used in incidents pertaining to communal violence in 1992 and 1993. There cannot be different standards to judge riots… The Justice Reddy Commission set up by his government blamed the Hindu nationalist organizations for the violence. The Gujarati cell appealed to the next generation to connect with the Shiv Sena by spreading the message that the party had saved the community in the 1992-93 riots. Sanjay Patel, BJP leader from Khambhat and a former MLA and Pinakin Brahmbhatt, the city unit head of the BJP, were among those who raised provocative religious slogans. The riots were caused by the municipal council's decision to remove the dargah (shrine) of Syed Chishti Rashiduddin, a medieval Sufi saint. “Another role these new right-wing outfits play is spreading propaganda like Love Jihad,” he added. The Shiv Sena government rejected its recommendations. , The riots were followed by the retaliatory 12 March 1993 Bombay Bombings.. Later the Shiv Sena, a Hindu-nationalist political party in Maharashtra also participated in riots to respond the violence against them. In 1969, curfew was imposed for 65 days in a row, while in 1985 the riots lasted six months. Find Gujarat Riots Convict Latest News, Videos & Pictures on Gujarat Riots Convict and see latest updates, news, information from NDTV.COM. The British colonial policy of Divide and Rule allegedly included administrative and political activities such as communalized census taking, and the Morley Minto reforms, that relied on communal segregation, and in particular Hindu-Muslim divisions. The Bombay riots can be considered a result of larger communal tensions throughout India.  Historian Barbara Metcalf has stated that the riots were anti-Muslim pogrom.  He died on 20 February 2010 without serving his sentence.. These boards, either signed by the Bajrang Dal or the VHP, at times have a phone number with the member’s (who put it up) name on it. The Report asserted that the communal passions of the Hindus were aroused to fever pitch by the inciting writings in print media, particularly Saamna and Navaakal which gave exaggerated accounts of the Mathadi murders and the Radhabai Chawl incident. It enjoys global recognition because Muslims were supposedly victimized; […] The family of Hussainbhai Rahimwala Sheikh was among the Muslims who fled their home which was burnt to ashes. Nine businessmen from the western suburbs joined the Shiv Sena on the occasion. Barot threatened the couple but some college boys thrashed him instead. Subscribe to NewsClick's Telegram channel & get Real-Time updates on stories, as they get published on our website. , The violence was widely reported as having been orchestrated by the Shiv Sena, a Hindu-nationalist political party in Maharashtra. Clashes broke out between the two groups in the college following which an FIR was registered against eight students, all Muslims. Udhna police registered a case under IPC sections 143, 147, 148, 149, 436, 437, 120 (B) and TADA sections 5 and 7, and arrested 26 persons, including Ikbal Belim, Rahim Rana and Shakeel Ansari. The cell decided to organise such gatherings every month in localities dominated by Gujaratis. “Whether it is 1984 Delhi riots, 1992 Mumbai riots, 1985 Gujarat riots or atrocities committed in Kashmir or Godhra-related riots. Hindu-Muslim conflicts have been going on for the past 1300-1400 years. Subsequently, the state government imposed the Disturbed Areas Act in the town that bars sale of property between two religious communities without prior permission from district authorities. But he blamed me instead, saying I was overthinking it and trying to trigger communal tensions again,” said a Gujarat-based minority rights activist who wished to remain anonymous. It also saw riots of a large scale in 1980, 1982, 1990-1991- 1992. Shiv Sena chief Bal Thackeray admitted his role as rightful reactions to … I mentioned them to the district collector and told him that the boards add to the fear of these Muslim families. However, a few days after the ‘compromise’, the couple fled the village and the tribal community attacked the Muslim locality. Earlier, major cities like Ahmedabad, Surat and Vadodara had witnessed major communal riots in 1946, 1969,1981-82, 1985, 1990, 1992, 2002 and 2006. The violence demonstrates that the riots of Gujarat 2002, the demolition of the Babri Mosque in 1992 or the horrendous lynching of a Muslim man for consuming beef would not elude India as long as the Modi regime continues to be in power. The girl and the boy, who had been in a relationship for a long time, left the village. The Bombay riots usually refers to the riots in Mumbai, in December 1992 and January 1993, in which an estimated 900 people died. Boards of "Welcome to Hindu Rashtra" in various places in Gujarat all signed by Bajrang Dal or VHP. Can the State Dictate what Religion you will Follow and who you will Marry? Timeline of the Riots in Modi’s Gujarat UPDATED August 19, 2015 For more than a decade, Indians have asked whether Narendra Modi, India’s new prime minister, could have slowed or … Notably, Khambhat, a coastal town in Anand district in central Gujarat, has emerged as a hot spot for communal tension since 2002. In November 2016, a minor incident of a Muslim autorickshaw driver colliding with the motorcycle of a person from the Ravar community in Pith Bazar area turned into a riot. Apr 13, 2017, 11:45 AM IST  However, he was immediately granted bail. In the same month, a small-scale communal incident occured over a social media post about the Pulwama attack in another part of Khambhat. Almost in every incident of communal tension that has happened post 2002, the role of a newly-formed local right-wing outfit has been found. Four persons were severely injured in the clash as were three police personnel. He remembers a similar conversation as Kapoor’s in The Times of India during the Bombay riots – on the need to name the communities. Six years later, hundreds of Hindus and Muslims died in riots across two phases in Mumbai in 1992-93. The state saw far worse riots in 1969 and 1985. In the years 2017 and 2018 Khambhat saw sporadic incidents of communal tension. The police fired seven rounds in the air and lobbed tear-gas shells to restore order. In 2019 alone, there were six incidents of communal clashes or riots in various rural areas or small towns in Gujarat which had been unaffected by the 2002 riots. However, that did not stop incidents of communal clashes in Khambhat. They left after finding him, only to return as a bigger mob of about 500 people with wooden staffs, swords and pipes. The incident triggered riots in Gujarat, and more than a thousand people were killed, most of them Muslims. Los Angeles Riots of 1992, major outbreak of violence, looting, and arson in Los Angeles that began on April 29, 1992, in response to the acquittal of four white Los Angeles policemen on all but one charge (on which the jury was deadlocked) connected with the severe beating of an African American motorist in March 1991. The riots are portrayed in several different films: "Why there's no noise about the Mumbai riots", "Factors responsible for the growth of communalism", "The Hindu : Thackeray arrested, freed by court", "Yakub Memon case: one chart that shows just how partisan India's justice system can be", "Shiv Sena politician convicted over 1992 Mumbai riots", "Former Shiv Sena leader Sarpotdar convicted in Mumbai for inciting violence in 1992", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST), Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Indian Institute of Technology - Bombay (IIT-B), Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI), Institute of Chemical Technology (formerly UDCT), Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies (JBIMS), SP Jain Institute of Management and Research, Sydenham Institute of Management Studies, Research and Entrepreneurship Education(SIMSREE), Ramniranjan Anandilal Podar College of Commerce and Economics, V. G. Vaze College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences (UM-DAE CBS), Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bombay_riots&oldid=1001968706, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2009, Articles lacking in-text citations from April 2009, Maharashtra articles missing geocoordinate data, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, the aggravation of Muslim sentiments by the Hindus with their celebration rallies. The 2002 Gujarat riots of India is one such instance. Every citizen must oppose riots,” he said in his latest blog post. From 8 January 1993, many riots occurred between Hindus led by the Shiv Sena and Muslims potentially funded by the Bombay underworld at that time. 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